Production of Biochar from Biomass
1.Qasim Hussein Alwan/Ministry of industry and minerals/industrial research and development corporation/
petrochemical and chemical research.
2. Assistant Dr. Emil Mohammed Rahman University of Baghdad/Al-Khwarizmi college of engineering/Department of bio-chemical engineering.
3. Zeinab Hassan Ali/Ministry of industry and minerals/industrial research and development corporation/Center for petrochemical and chemical research.
4. Abdul Karim Abdul Sattar/Ministry of industry and minerals/industrial research and development corporation/Center for petrochemical and chemical research.
5. Anwar Shakir/Ministry of industry and minerals/industrial research and development corporation/Center for petrochemical and chemical research.
6. Riyad Muhammad Noman/Ministry of industry and minerals/industrial research and development corporation/Center for petrochemical and chemical research.
7. Jinan Abdul Amir/Ministry of industry and minerals/industrial research and development corporation/Center for petrochemical and chemical research.
Production of new energies from biomass is one of the most important strategies adopted currently in the world, which aims to reduce global warming. The pyrolysis of biomass in the absence of oxygen is one of the proposed ways to treat this phenomenon and for the production of biofuels, syngas manufacturing and biochar (Ondrˇej et al., 2013(a); Rohan et al., 2013; Moses et al., 2011; Amir et al., 2010). Biofuel and syngas are used industrially for generation of renewable energy (i.e. heat and electricity), while for biochar is considered the most important topics and emerging, and that the primary use is not as fuel but for improving soil fertility and at the same time minimizing the negative impacts of climate change (Nur et al., 2013; Wan et al., 2013; Evita et al., 2013). Where the soil is considered the best medium to retain carbon and at the same time the best way to remove greenhouse gases. The soil carbon inventory depends on several factors, the most important and most influential is the climate, soil type and soil management (Yang et al., 2012; Jonathan et al., 2011; Suzette et al., 2011). Biochar has numerous benefits to the soil, considered as one of the means that can help in the rehabilitation of degraded land, the slow degradation of bio-carbon in the soil makes it different from other sources of organic carbon in the soil, and is the overall effect on the soil is to improve the physical, chemical and biological properties, it helps soil aeration, facilitates the absorption of water, installing and storing nutrients in the roots also plays a role in attracting some of the microorganisms that have an important role in achieving balance within the soil and fertilized by converting nitrogen into nitrogen compounds used by the plant in the formation of the protein, and activate the microbial activity in the soil. The greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced by twice or five times when the use of biochar in the farmland. In this way, this approach can be renew the organic carbon in the soil, act as an important adaptation for climate change, in addition to carbon fixation (Junyeong et al., 2013; Sohi et al., 2010). The feedstock type effect the properties of the produced biochar, the properties of the biochar pyrolysis, and the pyrolysis condition are the most important variables effect the quality and the quantity of produced biochar that promote the stability of the soil (Ondrˇej et al., 2013(b); Kaige et al, 2013; Shane et al., 2013; Weiping et al., 2013; Zhengang et al., 2013; Brewer, 2012 (b)). As a strategy and from a technical point of view, it can be applied with minimum challenges to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere compared to the process of injection of CO2 in oil wells or mines or in the ocean feeding by chemicals. Preliminary studies indicate that if 2.5% of the available agricultural land in the world are used for the production of biochar (from waste) and its use in the soil may reduce carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere to before 1752 by the year of 2050 (Esben et al ., 2012; Daniele et al., 2012; Dorisel et al., 2011). Laboratory and field studies on soils with low content of nutrients show an increase in crop production rate as a result of the use of biochar. However, its impact still inconclusive, since other studies have revealed low effect or passive of biochar compared to charcoal. Currently, the control mechanism and transmission of biochar and its effect on soil properties is not clearly understood. Moreover, it is difficult to compare because of many variations, as the soil used, biochar type, biomass, climate, research methodology, etc… of differences between these studies. However, without research and care enough in its applications, production methods and biomass sources. All of these may cause problems, which may distort or delay biochar development (Rodrigo et al., 2012; Ferrante et al., 2011; Mandu et al., 2010; Wei et al., 2010). This research aims to study the production of biochar from local Iraqi palm fronds as biomass. In present research the produced biochar was characterized to be used for agricultural purposes (soil productivity enhancement) and environmental purposes (reducing the level of contamination in the soil). Experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 523 to 773 K, and at atmospheric pressure. Thermal pyrolysis experiments were carried by using continuous laboratory reaction unit of fixed bed type, and the where nitrogen was used as a carrier gas and for oxygen removal.