Ph.D dissertation at the university of Baghdad addressing the possibility of expulsion accumulated salts in Al-Hammar marsh
A discussion of a doctoral dissertation entitled “The selection of the outlet and operating location for the western part of Al-Hammar marsh “ by “Jamal Sahib Al-Hamdani, in the department of water resources engineering, has taken place in the college of engineering at the university of Baghdad. The importance of this study lies in what the water resources represent in the enhancement of the national and agricultural economy, especially in the marshes of Iraq, as Al- Hammar marsh is fed from the general downstream water of high concentrations of salt, by quintiles canal , to address the shortfall in feeding the marsh and to keep it from drought again, with no outlet for water of the marsh which has led to accumulation of salt at high concentrations inside the mars;, therefore, it has become necessary to choose a typical location for water outlet that ensures the process of mixing and recycling and the expulsion of accumulated salts inside the marsh, with the preparation of the operating agenda that keeps the level of salts within predefined ranges. To achieve the aim of the study , field measurements has been taking twice a year for the discharges and concentrations of salt of nutrients, with the measurement of the depths and concentrations of salt in fifteen points within the marsh in January and July, depending on the measured and obtained data from the relevant authorities. The followed hydrological has been prepared for the Western part of Al-Hammar marsh, so as to account the emerging drains , and prepare two models which are: hydrodynamic and environmental, as it has been by these two models account the depths, velocities and concentrations of salt of the western part of Al- Hammar marsh after proposing five locations for the outlet in order to choose the best ones depending on the obtained results. The field measurements have demonstrated that the water revenue of the marsh were 48.17 and 62.11 m 3 sec. for January and July respectively, while the share of quintiles canal of which were about 27 and 29 m3 sec. , and it has demonstrated also the average concentrations of salt entering the marsh was 2020 and 3050 mg liter for January and July respectively, from the Euphrates by nutrients while it was 6300 and 8100 mg liter of quintiles canal, whereas the depths inside the marsh and at the allocated points ranging from zero to 1.05 m. The results have shown that the depths of the water and the distribution of velocities and concentrations of salt inside the marsh depends on the location of salts and drainage and the concentration of nutrients, including quintiles canal , and resulted from the value of the evaporation the location of the outlet and the topography of the area in front of him, It has also been observedd that the forefront of the rail and COPD security is not affected by the location of the outlet retaining levels of water higher than the other part. Through the results of all the cases and the different locations of the outlet, it has been observed that the concentrations of salts of the northern part of the marsh are always less than the rest of the part, this is due to the impact of nutrients with the least concentrations of salt from the Euphrates, it has also been observed that there is a steady tract in the northern part of the marsh as where depths and velocities are higher than the rest of the parts and always the runoff goes with it, and at its end the water gets along the closest track to the proposed outlet. The results has also shown that the percentage of processed water from quintiles canal with the highest concentration of salts to the total processed water play an important role in the distribution of concentrations of salt inside the marsh. The summary of the above results has shown that the proposed location of coordination 699 003 Eastward and 3.40476 Northward gave the lowest rate for the spaces of high concentration of salts and all proposed operating conditions. Professor Dr.Riyadh Zuhair Al-Zubaidi has supervised this dissertation, the committee has consisted of Prof. Dr. Ahmed Abdel-Saheb, Muhammad Ali (Chairman), and membership of, an assistant professor Dr. Bassim Shabi’ Abid, Assistant professor Khalid Adel Abdulrazzaq, assistant professor Dr. Iayad Sleibi Mustafa, and assistant professor Dr. Haider Abdul Ameer Khudair.