Ph.D dissertation at the university of Baghdad addressing the possibility of expulsion accumulated salts in Al-Hammar marsh

Ph.D dissertation at the university of Baghdad addressing the possibility of expulsion  accumulated salts in Al-Hammar marsh

A discussion of a doctoral dissertation entitled “The  selection of the outlet and operating location  for the western part of Al-Hammar marsh  “ by  “Jamal Sahib Al-Hamdani,  in the department of water resources engineering, has taken place in the college of engineering at the university of Baghdad. The importance of this study lies in what the water resources represent  in the enhancement of the national and agricultural economy, especially in the marshes of Iraq, as Al- Hammar marsh is fed from the general downstream water of  high concentrations of salt, by  quintiles canal , to address the shortfall in feeding the marsh and to keep it from drought again, with no outlet for water of the marsh which has led to accumulation of salt at high concentrations inside the mars;, therefore, it has become necessary to choose a typical location for water outlet that ensures the process of mixing and recycling and the expulsion of accumulated salts inside the marsh, with the preparation of the operating agenda that keeps the level of salts within predefined ranges. To achieve the aim of the study , field measurements  has been taking  twice a year for the discharges and concentrations of salt of nutrients, with the measurement of the depths and concentrations of salt in fifteen points within the marsh  in January and July, depending on the measured and obtained data  from the relevant authorities. The followed  hydrological has been prepared for the Western part of Al-Hammar marsh, so as to account the emerging drains , and prepare  two models  which are: hydrodynamic and environmental, as it has been by these two models account the depths, velocities and concentrations of salt of the western part of Al- Hammar marsh after  proposing five locations for the outlet in order  to choose the best ones depending on the obtained results. The field measurements have demonstrated that the water revenue of the marsh were 48.17 and 62.11 m 3 sec. for  January and July respectively, while the share of quintiles  canal  of which were about  27 and 29 m3 sec. , and it has demonstrated  also  the average concentrations of salt entering the marsh was 2020 and 3050 mg liter for   January and July respectively, from  the Euphrates  by nutrients while it was 6300 and 8100 mg liter of  quintiles canal, whereas the depths inside the marsh and at  the allocated points ranging from zero to 1.05 m. The results have shown that the depths of the water and the distribution of velocities and concentrations of salt inside  the marsh depends on the location of salts and drainage and the concentration of nutrients, including quintiles canal , and resulted from the value of the evaporation  the location of the outlet  and the topography of the area in front of him, It has also been observedd that  the forefront of the rail and COPD security is not affected by the location of the outlet retaining levels of water higher than the other part. Through the results of all the cases and the different locations of the outlet, it has been  observed  that the concentrations of salts of the northern part of the marsh are always  less than the rest of the part, this is due to the impact of nutrients with the least concentrations of salt  from the Euphrates, it has  also been observed that there is a steady tract  in the northern part of the marsh  as where depths and velocities are  higher than the rest of the parts and always  the runoff goes with it, and at its end the water gets along  the closest track to the proposed outlet. The results has also shown  that the percentage of processed water from  quintiles canal with the highest concentration of salts to the total processed water play an important role in the distribution of concentrations of salt inside the marsh. The  summary of the above results has shown that the proposed location of coordination 699 003 Eastward and 3.40476 Northward  gave the lowest rate for the spaces of high concentration of salts and all proposed operating conditions. Professor Dr.Riyadh Zuhair Al-Zubaidi has supervised this dissertation, the committee  has consisted of  Prof. Dr. Ahmed Abdel-Saheb, Muhammad Ali (Chairman), and membership of, an assistant professor Dr. Bassim Shabi’ Abid, Assistant professor Khalid Adel Abdulrazzaq,  assistant professor Dr. Iayad Sleibi Mustafa, and assistant professor Dr. Haider Abdul Ameer Khudair.

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