Baghdad is the capital of Iraq and the center of Baghdad governorate. Its population is (7,216,040) inhabitants, according to the latest statistics in 2011, making it the largest city in Iraq and the second largest city in the Arab world after Cairo, the second largest city in West Asia after Tehran, capital of Iran, as well as it is considered as the economic and administrative center is in the State. I is built by the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mansur in 762 a.d. 764 A.D. in the sixth decade of the eighth century where it became the Abbasid capital of Baghdad. It was one of the most important scientific centers on its diversity in the world and a forum for scientists and scholars for many centuries. The significance of its site was a result of water availability and decreasing flooding which in turn led to the expansion of the city and increase its influence along with easy contact across the Tigris by bridges. Several names were attached to the ancient city of Baghdad as Circular city, Zoraa, Dar Al-Salaam. Tigris traverses it and divides it into two parts: Karkh (western part) and Resafa (eastern part). Baghdad witnessed many foreign invasions and internal fluctuations over the past centuries, Mongols, Safavids, Ottomans and the British invaded it and it suffered terribly during the occupation, but the latest of which was the American invasion in 2003. Baghdad became known for long by its writers, poets and artists, where the cultural mobility is emerging as one of the most influential Arab capitals of culture and arts.
Abu Jaafar Al-Mansour built his new capital on the site of the village was known as Baghdad since the days of Hammurabi and he named it (city of peace), but that people were often called it the city of Al Mansour. ‘BEGDADA” was named dating back to the 18th century BC, the time of King Hammurabi and “Baghdad” was found in another tablet dating back to the years 1316 1341 BC. In another tablet dating back to the 12th century BC it was named “Begdado”, also in a document dating back to the year 728 BC during the rule of the Assyrian king “Teglat fla Ser” III (745 727 BC) it was named “Begdado”. Abou El Fadl Bediuzzaman Hamadani (968)-(1007) cited the name of Baghdad in two of his twenty-five Maqamas. The name “Baghdad” in ancient Babylon folks language is consisted of two parts, the first means “orchard” while the second part means “beloved”, so the meaning of Baghdad becomes “the beloved orchard”.